Heel Pain

Heel Pain Treatments

Heel Pain: A Comprehensive Guide to Causes, Prevention, and Relief

It’s early in the morning, the moment your alarm clock nudges you awake with its persistent buzz. With a sigh, you swing your legs out of bed and place your feet on the floor, only to be greeted with a sharp jolt of pain in your heel.

An unfortunate way to start your day, isn’t it? Many of us have experienced the unpleasant sting of heel pain at one point or another, and it’s not something we’d wish upon anyone.

This comprehensive guide delves into the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for this common condition. So, if you’re tired of wincing every time you take a step, read on to find out how to relieve your discomfort.

Understanding Heel Pain

Heel pain is the discomfort experienced at the underside or back of your heel. It is a frequent problem; one in ten people will develop heel pain during their lifetime. To understand the root of this issue, it’s crucial to comprehend the foot’s anatomy.

Your heel bone (the calcaneus) is the largest in your foot, and it works closely with the plantar fascia – a thick band of tissue that connects your heel to the ball of your foot. The heel bone is also closely linked to the Achilles tendon, which attaches to the back of your heel.

The role these parts play in maintaining our balance is significant, hence when discomfort arises, it can be particularly distressing.

Causes of Heel Pain

Several conditions can be the culprits behind the causes of heel pain. Let’s delve into the most common ones:

  1. Plantar Fasciitis: This occurs when the plantar fascia becomes inflamed, leading to severe pain in the heel or the arch of the foot. It’s often associated with the day’s first steps or after long periods of rest.
  2. Achilles Tendinitis: Inflammation of the Achilles tendon can cause pain at the back of your heel. It is usually the result of overuse or degeneration of the tendon.
  3. Heel Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursa at the back of the heel can cause pain and swelling. It is often caused by wearing shoes that rub or press against the heel.
  4. Heel Spurs: Bone spurs are small, bony projections that form on the heel bone. They usually develop due to the stress and inflammation associated with plantar fasciitis.
  5. Stress Fractures: Common among athletes, a stress fracture can cause dull aching pain in the heel. These are tiny cracks in the bone caused by overuse or repeated impact on the foot.

Risk factors that can lead to heel pain include age, certain occupations that involve standing for long periods, participating in certain sports, obesity, and wearing shoes that don’t fit well or provide insufficient support.

Symptoms of Heel Pain

Heel pain can manifest in many ways – a dull aching pain or a sharp, intense sting. It might worsen with the first steps in the morning, or it might become more apparent during certain activities.

The list of symptoms includes:

  • Pain beneath the heel when standing or walking
  • Swelling at the back of the heel
  • Difficulty bending the foot down or standing on your toes
  • Warmth and redness over the affected foot

While occasional heel pain might not raise alarms, when should you see a doctor? Well, if your heel pain persists for more than a week, or it’s accompanied by swelling, redness, heat, or inability to walk, it’s time to seek professional medical help.

Diagnosis of Heel Pain

The first step in diagnosing heel pain is a physical examination. Your doctor may ask you to flex your foot while they press on the plantar fascia to check for pain. They might also ask you to walk or do other movements to determine the cause of your pain.

Next, X-rays or other imaging can provide a clear view of the heel bone and may reveal any heel spurs or stress fractures. Understanding the source of your heel pain is crucial because the treatment will depend on the underlying cause.

Prevention of Heel Pain

Before diving into the treatment world, it’s worth noting that preventing heel pain is often easier and far more comfortable than curing it. Taking care of your feet isn’t just about picking out supportive shoes or avoiding long periods of standing on hard surfaces.

It’s about being proactive and paying attention to your body’s signals. Here are some recommendations to keep heel pain at bay:

1. Adopt an Abnormal Walking Style

Walking at an odd angle can put undue stress on your heel and surrounding tissue. Seek professional advice if you’ve noticed any changes in your gait.

2. Wear Supportive Shoes

Good footwear can make a significant difference in preventing heel pain. Choose shoes with solid support and ample cushioning, particularly in the heel and arch areas. So wear shoes that are supportive!

3. Use Heel Pads or Shoe Inserts

These can provide extra cushioning, reducing the impact on your heel when walking or running. Shoe inserts can also help with flat feet and other problems that might contribute to heel pain.

4. Limit Long Periods of Standing

Standing for extended periods, especially on hard surfaces, can stress your heel excessively. Try to take regular breaks and rest your feet when possible.

5. Regular Exercise and Stretching

Regular physical activity can prevent heel pain, particularly exercises that strengthen your calf muscles and improve flexibility. Keep your knee straight in some exercises and knee bent in others to work both sets of muscle fibres. Stretching exercises are great!

6. Maintain a Healthy Weight

Weight gain can put extra pressure on your feet, worsening heel pain. Aim for a healthy weight to reduce this risk.

Treatment and Relief for Heel Pain

When it comes to heel pain, understanding your options for treatment can empower you to make the best decisions for your health and recovery. Let’s explore some of the most effective ways to address heel pain:

Home Remedies and Lifestyle Changes

  • Rest and Ice Packs: One of the simplest ways to reduce pain and inflammation is to rest your foot and apply an ice pack for 15-20 minutes a few times a day.
  • Exercise and Physical Therapy: Regular stretching and strengthening exercises can relieve tension in the heel and surrounding muscles. Physical therapy can also help improve your walking style if it’s contributing to your heel pain.
  • Proper Footwear: Wearing appropriate footwear that fits properly and provides good support can help prevent further irritation or damage.

Medical Treatments and Therapies

  • Orthotics: Custom shoe inserts can provide additional support and cushioning, helping to alleviate heel pain. They’re particularly useful for conditions like flat feet.
  • Medication: Over-the-counter pain relievers can help manage mild to moderate pain. For more severe pain, your doctor may recommend stronger prescription medications.
  • Physical Therapy: Working with a physical therapist can be beneficial. Ultrasound therapy and extracorporeal shockwave therapy can help promote healing and reduce pain.

Surgical Options

  • Cortisone Injections: In severe cases, your doctor might suggest cortisone injections to reduce chronic inflammation and pain.
  • Surgery: This is typically the last resort when other treatments fail to provide relief. It may involve removing a heel spur, releasing the plantar fascia, or repairing a ruptured Achilles tendon.
  • Immobilization: In some cases, using a walking boot or cast can help to stabilize the foot and allow for healing.

An important part of the healing journey is managing pain and understanding recovery. This includes resting appropriately, following your treatment plan, and closely contacting your healthcare provider to track your progress.

Living with Heel Pain

Living with heel pain can be challenging, but there are ways to make it easier. Firstly, consider the following tips for managing daily life:

  • Use an ice pack or a frozen water bottle to provide relief when pain flares up.
  • Plan your day to avoid long periods on your feet when your pain is at its worst.
  • Use night splints or shoe inserts as recommended by your healthcare provider.

Secondly, it’s crucial to pay attention to your mental health. Chronic pain can take an emotional toll, so don’t hesitate to seek support from friends, family, or a mental health professional. Remember, it’s okay to ask for help, and reaching out could make your journey to recovery smoother.


Heel pain can present a significant hurdle in our daily lives, affecting our movement, comfort, and overall well-being. However, understanding its causes, prevention methods, and the myriad of treatments available paves the way for effective management. 

It’s essential to listen to your body, seek professional help, and remember you’re not alone in this journey. The road to recovery may require patience and diligence, but every step brings you closer to a life free of heel pain.

We hope this article was helpful. Thanks for reading!

Kula Health

Diarmuid Hegarty

Diarmuid is the Principal Physiotherapist here at ReSync Physiotherapy. He has a wealth of experience in both private practice settings, in UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. If you wish to book in with Diarmuid for an Assessment - Follow this link to Book Online Now.